News

Industry News   /   Industry News Home >> News >> Industry News

Development status and trend of graphene materials

   

    石墨烯具有导电性高、韧度高、强度高、比表面积大等突出的性质,在半导体、航空航天、能源、环境等众多领域具有广阔的应用前景。随着石墨烯制备与应用技术的不断完善,石墨烯对传统产业的升级换代和高端制造业的发展都将产生巨大的促进作用。本文对石墨烯国内外发展现状和趋势进行了梳理分析,并提出了我国进一步研究重点与对策建议。


一、关于石墨烯材料
  1. 定义与内涵
  石墨烯是紧密堆积成二维六方蜂窝状晶格结构单层碳原子。单层石墨烯厚度仅为0.35纳米,是目前已知最轻最薄的材料,它在室温下的电子迁移率为2×105 cm2·V-1·s-1,是光速的1/300,理论比表面积达2630 m2·g-1,全波段光吸收只有2.3%,导热率高达5000W·m-1·K-1,杨氏模量超过1100GPa,抗拉强度超过130GPa,且韧性非常好。
  2. 主要作用与意义

  石墨烯具有结构稳定、导电性高、韧度高、强度高、比表面积超大等突出的物理化学性质,在半导体、光伏、能源、航空航天、国防军工、新一代显示器等领域都将带来革命性的技术变革,一旦量产必将会成为下一个万亿级的产业,将会成为国民经济增长的重要组成部分。发展石墨烯产业对带动制造业相关下游产业技术进步,提升创新能力,加快转型升级,抢占新一轮竞争制高点,都有着重要的经济和社会意义。


二、世界发展现状与趋势
  由于石墨烯的重要特性和巨大应用价值,美国、欧盟、日本和中国等80多个国家皆将石墨烯材料的发展提高到战略高度,相继投入数十亿美元用于石墨烯材料的研究和开发。欧盟委员会将石墨烯列为仅有的两个“未来新兴技术旗舰项目”之一。美国将石墨烯视为支撑未来科技发展的战略性产业。各国企业也积极进行石墨烯产业的布局,据统计,全球有近300家公司涉足石墨烯相关的研究和开发,其中包括IBM、杜邦、洛克希德·马丁、波音、三星、陶氏化学、索尼等科技巨头。
  1. 石墨烯规模化制备技术
  迄今为止,石墨烯的产业化已取得了重要进展。国外的CVD Equipment Corporation、Graphene Nanochem PLC、Vorbrck Materials、XG Sciences等公司实现了石墨烯的规模化生产。虽然吨级以上的石墨烯粉体生产线已经建成,但是普遍存在质量低、制备过程污染等问题,无法体现石墨烯的各种优异性能,严重阻碍了石墨烯的大规模应用。
  石墨烯薄膜产品存在因生长过程导致的结构缺陷和因转移过程导致的表面污染,普遍电阻较高,远大于传统铟锡氧化物透明导电膜,无法体现其优异的电学性能,从而未在电子器件、半导体工业等领域得到广泛应用。
  2. 石墨烯应用在功能化器件
  在太阳能电池方向,石墨烯可能是替代铟锡氧化物的理想之选。美国麻省理工学院的研究人员在柔性石墨烯片上涂覆纳米线,生产出低成本、透明以及柔韧性佳的太阳能电池,能够在窗户、屋顶以及其他物体的表面使用。美国佛罗里达大学研究人员通过对石墨烯材料进行掺杂处理,获得的石墨烯太阳能电池的能量转化率高达8.6%。
  在柔性显示方向,韩国三星和成均馆大学联合研发出40英寸的石墨烯触摸屏面板;与首尔大学联合开发出石墨烯触摸屏幕,并将安装到三星电子的“Galaxy智能型手机”。
  3. 石墨烯应用在功能涂层
  石墨烯具有特殊的片层共轭结构和优异的电学性能,可以利用石墨烯制备出同时具有物理防腐和化学防腐性能的防腐涂层。
  美国明尼苏达大学研究人员将改性的石墨烯加入到聚氨酯涂层中,发现0.5wt%的添加量就能得到导电聚氨酯涂层,3.0wt%的添加量可将抗拉强度提升10倍。韩国济州大学研究人员将氧化石墨烯加入醇酸树脂制备了一种新型的纳米涂料,能够抑制细菌在其表面生长。
  4. 石墨烯应用在结构功能一体化复合材料
  石墨烯具有较高的杨氏模量和本征强度,可以利用调控石墨烯的界面性质,如亲疏水性,用于提高聚合物材料的力学性能及耐磨性能等。
  美国辛辛那提大学研究人员研究了石墨烯/聚酰亚胺复合材料的橡胶态高弹模量, 发现石墨烯含量为28vol%时,复合材料橡胶态高弹区的模量增加了4000倍;美国伦斯勒理工学院研究人员研究了石墨烯/聚四氟乙烯复合材料的润滑性能,发现10wt%的石墨烯添加量,使得复合材料的稳态磨损率降低了75%。
  结构完整的石墨烯表面能较低,与其他介质的相互作用较弱,很难与其他有机或无机材料均匀地复合。因此,石墨烯应用在复合材料领域未来的发展方向是,通过共价键功能化,获得特定表面性质的石墨烯产品,解决石墨烯在复合材料中的分散和界面相容性问题。
  5. 石墨烯应用在导电油墨
  与目前普遍采用的金属(金、银、铜)导电填料相比,石墨烯导电填料性能更加稳定,不易氧化,附着力较强,在导电方面,石墨烯填料具有较大的优势。
  国外石墨烯导电油墨处于实验研发阶段,正在进行产业化布局。2016年6月剑桥大学的研究员成功制备了高性能的水性石墨烯导电油墨,可以任意通过喷墨打印、丝网印刷、弹性印刷、刀式涂布等成膜方法印刷在电子器件上,不同厚度的电阻仅为~30W/ @2mm、~10W/ @25mm,成本远远低于其他导电油墨体系的工业生产成本。
  目前石墨烯导电油墨的电性能介于银浆和碳浆方阻值之间,只能满足较低电导率领域。长远发展方向是以获得更高导电性的石墨烯导电油墨,兼顾石墨烯的柔韧性,以满足柔性屏幕、柔性印刷电路板等电子元器件的要求。
  6. 石墨烯应用在半导体信息产业
  石墨烯的导电、导热性能远超硅和其他传统的半导体材料,随着集成电路制造技术的不断改进,由硅制成的晶体管大小正接近极限(15nm甚至10nm以下),而石墨烯有望取代硅成为新一代电子元器件材料。
  2008年,Meric等人首次实现石墨烯晶体管的运行速度达到14.7GHz;2010年IBM的研究人员将石墨烯晶体管的截止频率提高到100GHz;2012年石墨烯晶体管的截止频率已达到350GHz,已远超同等条件下的硅基晶体管。
  石墨烯是零禁带材料,以此作为沟道的晶体管很难被关断,因此,石墨烯晶体管获得较高的开关比率一直难以实现。未来的发展方向主要是研发通过掺杂取代晶格结构中的碳原子、构建多维纳米结构或形成异质结等方法,克服零禁带问题,以实现高的开关比。
  7. 石墨烯应用在能量储存与转换
  石墨烯因具有极大的比表面积、卓越的导电性能、化学稳定性好,以及力学性能优异,在锂离子电池、锂-硫电池等能源存储与转化方面应用前景巨大。
  美国西北大学的研究人员利用自组装的方法制备了FeF3/石墨烯正极材料,该经100次循环仍有260mAhg-1的比容量,是商业化正极材料的2倍。他们采用抽虑方法制备了硅/多孔石墨烯薄膜负极材料,该材料经200次循环仍有1500mAh·g-1的容量。

  但是由于石墨烯的比表面积大,锂盐电解质在石墨烯表面会形成钝化薄膜(SEI膜),消耗高达30%~50%的首次放电容量,致使首次循环库伦效率较低。未来的发展方向主要是构建结构高度有序的石墨烯复合结构,表面均匀分布孔径均一的纳米孔,各层紧密接触以提高正负极材料的容量、功率以及循环寿命。


三、我国发展现状与水平
我国政府高度重视石墨烯发展,工业和信息化部、发展改革委和科技部联合发布的《关键材料升级换代工程实施方案》中明确提出支持石墨烯实现批量稳定生产和规模应用。工信部专门印发了《加快石墨烯产业创新发展的若干意见》。习近平主席在参观英国国家石墨烯研究院时提出:“中英两国在石墨烯研究领域完全可以实现强强联合”。
我国石墨烯研发起步相对较晚,但2010年后发展迅速,整体接近国外先进水平,部分领域实现了领先。在基础科研方面,全球石墨烯研究论文超过12万篇,中国占有40%,排名第一;全球专利申请总量为49229件,中国专利申请量为23953件,占比48.65%,排名第一。
在石墨烯产业化方面,各级政府也在积极加快产业化步伐,石墨烯薄膜和粉体已实现量产,下游应用正稳步推进。全国石墨烯产业已形成江苏常州、浙江宁波、北京等城市为首的格局。国内江南石墨烯研究院、常州二维碳素、宁波墨西等企业成为石墨烯产业的开拓者。
1. 石墨烯规模化制备技术
2014年5月,常州二维碳素科技有限公司宣布其第一条年产3万平方米石墨烯透明导电薄膜生产线实现量产;2014年5月28日,宁波墨希公司推出了平均厚度3纳米的石墨烯微粉材料,售价仅为1元/克;2016年5月,山西煤化所完成了低成本高品质石墨烯的吨级工程化放大,中试技术通过省科技厅鉴定,形成10吨级成套工艺技术。
2. 石墨烯应用在功能化器件
香港理工大学的研究人员将钙钛矿石墨烯太阳能电池电源转换效率提高到12%,超越标准的透明太阳能电池,它的每瓦电力成本低于0.5元,意味着生产成本比硅太阳能电池成本低了50%以上;浙江大学的研究人员将石墨烯太阳能电池的效率提高到18.5%,这是目前国际上获得的最高转化效率的石墨烯/半导体异质结太阳能电池。
3. 石墨烯应用在功能涂层
我国在石墨烯功能涂层领域布局较早,处于国际领先地位。常州第六元素材料科技股份有限公司设计的石墨烯防腐涂料耐盐雾时间达3000小时以上,超出传统防腐涂料性能5倍以上,并于去年通过了工信部的国家技术认定;济宁利特纳米技术有限责任公司将石墨烯加入到丙烯酸锌树脂中,制备了防污防腐涂料,耐盐雾时间超过1000小时,公司已完成2000吨石墨烯防腐涂料生产线的建设。
4. 石墨烯应用在结构功能一体化复合材料
我国在石墨烯基复合材料的研究已处于国际领先水平,主要集中在对复合材料强度、导电和导热方面的研究。上海交通大学的研究人员将功能化氧化石墨烯原位聚合成石墨烯/聚酰亚胺纳米复合材料,在保持材料稳定性基础上将弹模量提高了86.4%。清华大学、大连应化所、南开大学等研究机构也均致力于此方面的研究。
5. 石墨烯应用在导电油墨
我国在石墨烯导电油墨产业化方向与国际同步。山西煤化所成功制备出性能优异的水性石墨烯导电油墨,电阻仅为~20W/ @15mm。青岛瑞利特新材料科技有限公司建成了国内首条30吨/年的石墨烯导电油墨生产线。
6. 石墨烯应用在半导体信息产业
在半导体信息产业领域,我国与发达国家仍然存在一定的差距。中科院重庆绿色智能技术研究院成功制备出7英寸的柔性石墨烯触摸屏。中科院微电子所制备出了具有极高振荡频率的石墨烯射频器件。山东大学在2英寸SiC衬底上生长出大面积石墨烯,进一步推进石墨烯半导体器件的发展。
7. 石墨烯应用在能量储存与转换

我国石墨烯应用在能量存储与转换领域已经成功赶超其他国家,处于国际领先地位。2016年7月8日,东旭光电推出了世界首款石墨烯基锂离子电池产品—“烯王”。该产品与普通电池相比不仅可在满足5C条件下,实现15分钟内快速充放电,而且可在-30~80℃环境下工作,循环寿命更高达3500次左右。


四、我国进一步发展重点与对策建议
  1. 发展重点
  “十三五”前期发展重点集中于石墨烯原材料的批次稳定和可控制备,在能源、复合材料、环境等领域的产业化延伸,逐步形成产业集群;“十三五”后期发展重点集中于石墨烯产业链的延伸及对不同领域的引领作用,全面拓展石墨烯在能源、复合材料、环境领域的产业集群。逐渐拓展石墨烯在电子薄膜、电子器件等领域的产业化进程,并在基础材料领域的研发取得世界领先地位。
  同时,石墨烯粉体具有成本低、导热和导电性能优异的特点,有望短期内在能源、环境和复合材料等领域实现规模化应用,应该加强在这些领域的应用技术研究。
  石墨烯薄膜具有高质量、少缺陷和卓越的导电性能,在半导体、新一代显示器等领域呈现了巨大的应用前景,应重点攻克。
  2. 对策与建议
  为了更有效地促进我国石墨烯技术及产业发展,建议进一步采取以下对策:
  首先,加强统筹。在国家层面上将石墨烯产业归口在一个部门管理,组织专家进行调研,根据不同地区优势,鼓励石墨烯企业并购重组,提高石墨烯产业集中度;政府部门应完善公共研发、技术转化与交流等平台,联合企业、院所建立产品开发、技术合作和权益共享的石墨烯产业化研究平台,避免低水平重复建设和市场的无序竞争。
  其次,在石墨烯技术与应用方面,由于石墨烯应用在电子领域还处在实验阶段,最快可实现产业化应用的领域包括能源、环境和复合材料等领域。因此,建议“十三五”期间,由中央政府主导,结合地方政府,联合科研院所和企业,集中力量,通过发挥产学研各方创新资源和技术优势,实现石墨烯在这些领域的重大突破。

  同时,应进一步推出产学研合作。目前,我国石墨烯产业正处于商业化应用的关键时期,政府部门应引导企业携手高校、院所,通过“产学研”相结合,充分发挥高校、科研院所与企业在基础研究和工程化生产方面的各自优势,协同攻克石墨烯产业化中的关键技术。


本文转载自科技中国
作者:史冬梅 何大方 张雷(科技部高技术研究发展中心;江南石墨烯研究院;钢铁研究总院)
首发刊载于《科技中国》杂志2018年1月第1期 前沿


Graphene is characterized by high conductivity, high toughness, high strength and large surface area. It has broad application prospects in many fields such as semiconductor, aerospace, energy and environment. With the continuous improvement of graphene preparation and application technology, graphene will greatly promote the upgrading of traditional industries and the development of high-end manufacturing industry. In this paper, the development status and trend of graphene at home and abroad are analyzed and analyzed, and further research emphasis and countermeasures are put forward.
1. About graphene material.
1. Definition and connotation.
Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms that are tightly packed into a two-dimensional, six-sided honeycomb lattice structure. Single-layer graphene thickness of only 0.35 nm, is the most light and thin material, known in the electron mobility at room temperature for 2 x 105 cm2, s. V - 1-1, is 1/300 of the speed of light, theory, specific surface area of 2630 m2 g, 1, all band of light absorption of only 2.3%, thermal conductivity is as high as 5000 w. k. m - 1-1, young's modulus of more than 1100 gpa, tensile strength of more than 130 gpa, and toughness is very good.
2. Main role and significance.
Graphene has stable structure, high electrical conductivity, high toughness, high strength, large specific surface area, such as outstanding physical and chemical properties, in the semiconductor, pv, energy, aerospace, national defense, a new generation of displays, and other fields will bring revolutionary technological change, once the mass production will be the next trillion-dollar industry, will become an important part of national economic growth. Graphene industry related downstream industries to drive the technological progress, improve innovation ability, to speed up the transformation and upgrading, grab a new round of competition the commanding heights, has important economic and social significance.
The current situation and trend of world development.
Due to the important properties of graphene and great application value, such as the United States, the European Union, Japan and China more than 80 countries are to improve the development of graphene materials to a strategic height, successively invested billions of dollars on research and development of graphene materials. The commission listed graphene as one of only two "future flagship projects for emerging technologies". The United States sees graphene as a strategic industry that supports future technological development. National enterprises are also actively for graphene industry layout, according to statistics, nearly 300 companies involved in global graphene related research and development, including IBM, dupont, lockheed Martin, Boeing, samsung, dow chemical, SONY and other technology giants.
1. Preparation technology of graphene scale.
So far, the industrialization of graphene has made important progress. Overseas CVD Equipment Corporation, Graphene Nanochem PLC, Vorbrck Materials, XG Sciences and other companies have realized the scale production of Graphene. Although t above graphene powder production line has been built, but widespread pollution problems such as low quality, preparation process, cannot reflect the variety of excellent performance of graphene, seriously hindered the large-scale applications of graphene.
Graphene film product defects of structure as a result of growth process and as a result of the transfer process of surface contamination, common resistance is higher, more traditional ITO transparent conductive film, cannot reflect the excellent electrical properties, thus not in fields such as electronics, semiconductor industry is widely used.
2. Graphene is used in functionalized devices.
In the direction of solar cells, graphene could be an ideal alternative to indium tin oxide. Researchers at the Massachusetts institute of technology in the flexible graphene sheet coated nanowires, produce low cost, good transparency and flexibility of solar cells, and is able to use Windows, roofs and other surfaces. Researchers at the university of Florida in the United States have obtained an 8.6 percent energy conversion rate for graphene solar cells by doping them with graphene materials.
In the direction of flexible display, South Korea's samsung and sungkyu university jointly developed a 40-inch graphene touch panel. A joint development of the graphene touch screen with Seoul university will be installed on the samsung electronics' Galaxy smart phone.
3. Graphene is applied in functional coating.
Graphene has special laminar conjugate structure and excellent electrical properties. It can be used to produce anticorrosive coating with both physical and chemical preservative properties.
The university of Minnesota researchers add the modification of graphene to the polyurethane coating, found that adding amount of 0.5 wt % can get conductive polyurethane coating, adding amount of 3.0 wt % can improve 10 times the tensile strength. Researchers at jeju university in South Korea have prepared a new nano-coating that inhibits bacteria from growing on its surface by adding alkyd resin.
4. Graphene is used in structural functional integration composite materials.
Graphene has higher young's modulus and intrinsic strength, which can be used to control the interface properties of graphene, such as hydrophilic water, to improve the mechanical properties and wear resistance of polymer materials.
The university of Cincinnati, the researchers studied graphene/polyimide composite rubber state high elastic modulus, found that graphene content is 28 vol %, high elastic rubber composite state OuDeMo quantity increased 4000 times; American rensselaer polytechnic institute researchers studied lubrication properties of graphene/ptfe composites, found that 10 wt % of graphene addition amount, makes the steady state wear rate of the composite materials was reduced by 75%.
The graphene surface with intact structure can be relatively low, and the interaction with other media is weak, and it is difficult to compound with other organic or inorganic materials. Therefore, graphene applications in the field of composite material is the development direction of the future, through covalent functionalization, get specific surface properties of graphene products, solve the graphene dispersion and interface compatibility problem in composite materials.


5. Graphene is used in conductive ink.
With the current widely used metal (gold, silver, copper) compared to the conductive fillers, graphene conductive filler performance is more stable, not easy oxidation, adhesion strong, in terms of conductive graphene filler has great advantage.
The foreign graphene conductive ink is in the experimental research and development stage, and is in the industrialization layout. In June 2016, researchers at the university of Cambridge succeeded in preparation of high-performance water-based graphene conductive ink, can be arbitrarily by inkjet printing, screen printing and flexible printing, knife coating film forming methods, such as printing on the electronic device, the resistance of the different thickness is only ~ 30 w / @ 2 mm, 25 mm ~ 10 w / @, cost is much lower than other conductive ink system of industrial production cost.
At present, the electrical properties of graphene conductive ink are between the silver pulp and the carbon slurry resistance, which can only meet the low conductivity field. The long-term development direction is to obtain the higher conductivity of graphene conductive ink, taking into account the flexibility of graphene to meet the requirements of flexible screen, flexible printed circuit board and other electronic components.
6. Graphene is used in the semiconductor information industry.
Electric and thermal conductivity of graphene performance far exceeds the silicon and other traditional semiconductor materials, with the continuous improvement of integrated circuit manufacturing technology, made of silicon transistor size is close to the limit (below 15 nm to 10 nm even), and graphene is expected to replace silicon as a new generation of electronic materials.
In 2008, Meric et al. first realized the running speed of graphene transistors at 14.7ghz; In 2010, IBM researchers raised the cutoff frequency of graphene transistors to 100GHz; In 2012, the cutoff frequency of the graphene transistor reached 350GHz, far exceeding the silicon base transistor under the same condition.
Graphene is a zero-forbidden material, which makes it difficult to turn off the transistor as a channel. Therefore, the high switching ratio of graphene transistors has been difficult to achieve. The future development direction is mainly developed by doping instead of carbon atoms in the lattice structures, build a multidimensional methods of nanometer structure or form heterojunction, overcome zero band gap problem, in order to realize the switch of high than.
7. Graphene is used in energy storage and conversion.
Graphene because of great specific surface area, excellent electric conductivity, good chemical stability, and mechanical performance is excellent, in lithium ion batteries, lithium - sulfur battery energy storage and transformation aspects, such as great prospect of application.
Researchers at northwestern university have used self-assembled methods to prepare FeF3/ graphene anode materials, which still have a capacity of 260mAhg-1 over 100 cycles, twice as much as commercial positive materials. They prepared the silicon/porous graphene film anode materials by means of the extraction method, and the material was still 1500mAh·g-1 in 200 cycles.
But, because of the large specific surface area of graphene lithium salts electrolyte on the surface of graphene can form passivation film (SEI film), up to 30% ~ 50% of the initial discharge capacity, the first cycle coulomb efficiency is low. The future development direction is mainly to build highly ordered structure of graphene composite structure, surface evenly distributed aperture uniform nanopores, each layer close contact in order to improve the capacity of the anode materials, power and cycle life.
Iii. Current situation and level of China's development.
The Chinese government attaches great importance to the development of graphene, the ministry of industry and information technology and national development and reform commission and ministry of science and technology jointly issued the "key material upgrade project implementation plan" clearly put forward in support of graphene steady production and scale of application in batches. The ministry of industry and information technology has issued a number of opinions on accelerating the innovation and development of graphene industry. President xi jinping said during a visit to the UK's national graphene institute that "China and the UK can achieve a strong alliance in the field of graphene research".
The development of graphene in China is relatively late, but it has developed rapidly since 2010 and is close to the advanced level of foreign countries as a whole. In terms of basic scientific research, the global graphene research paper has more than 120, 000 papers, and China accounts for 40%, ranking first. The total number of global patent applications is 49229, and the number of patent applications in China is 23953, accounting for 48.65%, ranking first.
In terms of the industrialization of graphene, governments at all levels are also actively accelerating the industrialization step. Graphene films and powders have achieved mass production, and downstream applications are progressing steadily. The national graphene industry has formed the pattern of jiangsu changzhou, zhejiang ningbo, Beijing and other cities. Domestic jiangnan graphene institute, changzhou two-dimensional carbon, ningbo, and other enterprises have become the pioneers of graphene industry.
1. Preparation technology of graphene scale.
In May 2014, changzhou two-dimensional carbon technology co., ltd. announced its first production line of 310,000 square meters of graphene transparent conductive film production line. On May 28, 2014, the company launched the graphene micropowder materials with an average thickness of 3 nanometers, and the price was only 1 yuan per gram. In May 2016, shanxi coal chemical co., ltd. completed the tonnage engineering magnification of low cost and high quality graphene, and the pilot technology was approved by the provincial science and technology department to form a 10-ton complete process technology.
2. Graphene is used in functionalized devices.
Researchers at the university of Hong Kong polytechnic will perovskite graphene solar battery power conversion efficiency up to 12%, beyond the standard transparent solar cells, and it costs less than $0.5 per watt of electricity, means that the cost of production by more than 50% lower than the cost of silicon solar cells; Researchers at zhejiang university have increased the efficiency of graphene solar cells to 18.5 percent, the highest conversion efficiency of graphene/semiconductor solar cells currently available internationally.
3. Graphene is applied in functional coating.
China has an early stage in the field of graphene functional coating, and is in the leading position in the world. Changzhou sixth element material technology co., LTD. Design of graphene anticorrosive coating resistance to salt fog time up to 3000 hours, beyond traditional anticorrosion coating is more than 5 times, and last year decided by the national ministry of technology; Jining, m technology co., LTD will Turner graphene joining in zinc acrylic resin, antifouling anticorrosive coating was prepared, salt fog resistance time of more than 1000 hours, the company has completed the construction of 2000 tons of graphene anti-corrosion coating production line.
4. Graphene is used in structural functional integration composite materials.
The research on graphene-based composites has been in the leading international level, focusing on the research on the strength, conductivity and thermal conductivity of composite materials. The researchers at Shanghai jiaotong university were able to aggregate the functionalized graphene into graphene/polyimide nano-composite materials, increasing the modulus of elasticity by 86.4% on the basis of maintaining the stability of the material. Research institutions such as tsinghua university, dalian yinghua institute and nankai university are also committed to this research.
5. Graphene is used in conductive ink.
The industrialization direction of graphene conductive ink and international synchronization. Shanxi coal chemical co., LTD. Has successfully prepared an excellent water-based graphene conductive ink with a resistance of ~20W/ @15mm. Qingdao ruilite new material technology co., LTD. Has built the first 30 tons of graphene conductive ink production line in China.
6. Graphene is used in the semiconductor information industry.
In the field of semiconductor information industry, there is still a gap between China and developed countries. A 7-inch flexible graphene touch screen has been successfully prepared by the chongqing green intelligent technology research institute of the Chinese academy of sciences. A graphene rf device with extremely high oscillation frequency was prepared by the microelectronics of Chinese academy of sciences. Shandong university has developed a large area of graphene on the 2-inch SiC substrate to further promote the development of graphene semiconductor devices.
7. Graphene is used in energy storage and conversion.
The application of graphene in China has successfully surpassed other countries in the field of energy storage and transformation, and is in the international leading position. On July 8, 2016, dongxuguang electric launched the world's first graphene-based lithium ion battery product, "king of allene". The product compared with ordinary batteries can be under the condition of meet the 5 c, not only realize the fast charging and discharging within 15 minutes, and can work under the environment of 30 ~ 80 ℃, the cycle life of 3500 times or so higher.
Fourth, China's further development focus and countermeasures and Suggestions.
1. Development focus
"Much starker choices-and graver consequences-in prophase development focused on graphene batch stability and controllable preparation of raw materials, in the field of energy, environment, such as composite materials, industrialization, gradually formed industrial cluster; "Much starker choices-and graver consequences-in" late development focus in graphene industry chain extension, and the leading role in the field of different developing graphene in the field of energy, composite materials, environmental industry cluster. It has gradually expanded the industrialization process of graphene in electronic film, electronic devices and other fields, and achieved world leading position in the research and development of basic materials.
At the same time, the graphene powders has the characteristics of low cost, excellent thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, is expected to short-term internal energy, environment and composite materials, and other fields to achieve large-scale application, should strengthen the application technique research in these areas.
Graphene films have high quality, low defect and excellent electrical conductivity. They have a great application prospect in semiconductor, new generation display and so on.
2. Countermeasures and Suggestions.
In order to promote the development of graphene technology and industry in China more effectively, the following countermeasures are proposed:
First, strengthen co-ordination. At the national level, graphene industry under centralized management in a department, organize experts research, based on different regional advantages, encourage graphene enterprise merger, acquisition and reorganization, improve the graphene industrial concentration; Government departments should improve public research and development, technology transfer and exchange platform, such as joint enterprises and institutions set up product development, technical cooperation and equity sharing platform for the industrialization of graphene research, avoid low level repetitive construction and disorderly competition of the market.
Secondly, in terms of graphene technology and application, as a result of graphene applications in electronics field is still at the experimental stage, the fastest can realize industrialization application areas including energy, environment, and composite materials, etc. Therefore, we suggest that during the period of "much starker choices-and graver consequences-in", dominated by the central government, combined with the local government, joint scientific research institutes and enterprises, concentrated force, by giving full play to the advantages of enterprises innovation resources and technology, achieve a major breakthrough in the discovery of graphene in the field of these.
At the same time, the cooperation should be further promoted. Graphene industry at present, our country is in a critical period of commercial application, the government should guide the enterprises to join hands in colleges and universities, institutes, through the combination of "production", give full play to universities, research institutes and enterprises in the aspect of basic research and engineering production of their respective advantages, together to conquer the key technique in the industrialization of graphene.
This article is reproduced from technology China.
Author: shi dongmei ho zhang lei (high technology research and development center of science and technology department; Jiangnan graphene institute; Iron and steel research institute
First published in "science and technology China" magazine in January 2018 at the forefront of the first issue.